About eight million barrels of oil are spilled each year. Tankers usually carry about five-hundred million barrels of oil.
Many animals are die and some are injured in some way. Many plants and animals are endangered, or are now extinct. The largest oil spill to occur was when the Exxon Valdez went aground and covered 4, square miles in Prince William Sound, Alaska. This spill killed 35, sea birds, 10, otters, and at least nine whales. The spill left pools of oil up to three feet on some beaches. In December of , an Iranian tanker leaked 70, tons, about 19 million gallons of oil off of the coast of Morocco.
In January a broken Exxon pipeline leaked , gallons into the New York harbor. In June of , another , gallons were spilled in New York Harbor. A tanker carrying 38 million gallons of oil caught on fire, and leaked oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This was a very serious threat to local shrimp nurseries and wildlife refuges. In February of , , gallons leaked from a damaged tanker off Southern California, fouling miles of shoreline.
In the Niger River delta, in Nigeria, Shell pipelines have repeatedly burst. In oil spilled across 8 square km, which remained contaminated for over 20 years. According to the U. Coast guard, the incident rate post is only 0. In fact, there have been no large spills over 5, barrels from tankers in the US since The US Coast Guard data shows that the amount of oil spilled by tankers has decreased dramatically. In the Philippines, the famous Guimaras Oil Spill has affected hundreds of kilometers of coastline and threatens rich fishing grounds.
The spill has polluted fishing grounds, dive spots, national marine reserve and adversely affected marine sanctuaries and mangrove reserves in three out of five municipalities in Guimaras Island and reached the shores of Iloilo and Negros Occidental, causing what is considered as the worst oil spill in the Philippines.
Oily sludge and dead wildlife have been washing up on beaches, with reefs, marine reserves and the tourist industry all affected. Oil spill is a type of pollution that occurs mostly on water as well as on land and can have devastating effects on plants, animal life and environment. Spills may occur of crude oil from tankers, oil rigs, platforms and oil wells as well as during the transport of the refined petroleum products in vessels and tankers.
Illegal waste oil dumping into oceans by organizations who do not want to invest in the cost of degrading their waste oil also contributes to increasing oil spill.
Natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes can also contribute to oil spills from oil rigs as well as during transport of vessels and tankers. Oil spills take place largely because there is a need and demand for oil as a source of energy. Oil is used in one way or another in our day to day activities. We use oil to fuel our cars, trucks, buses and so on as well as to heat or light up our homes.
Oil is used extensively in industries to power large machinery and equipment. When oil tankers have equipment faults. When oil tankers break down, it may get stuck on shallow land. When the tanker is attempted to move out of shallow land, abrasion may cause a hole in the tanker that will lead to large amounts of oil being released into the oceanic bodies. From nature and human activities on land. The large majority of oil spilled is from natural seeps geological seeps from the ocean floor as well as leaks that occur when products using petroleum or various forms of oil are used on land, and the oil is washed off into water bodies.
Other causes of oil spills are spills by petroleum users of released oil. This happens when various water sports or water vehicles such as motorboats and jet skis leak fuel. Drilling works carried out in sea. The most common cause of oil pollution by ships comes from what are called operational oil spills. At the bottom of the ship under the engines is a space called the bilge.
It collects water, oil and grease. The waste oil is put into a special holding tank to be offloaded in the next port. The remaining water, which may have traces of oil, is pumped overboard through an oily water separator.
This makes sure only the tiniest amount of permitted oil goes into the sea. The amount is so small it cannot be seen by the naked eye. If an oil slick can be seen behind a ship, it means that the ship has broken the law and has discharged more oil than is allowed. Other operational spills may happen when a ship is loading bunker oil or lubricating oil for its engines. A hose can break spilling oil. An operational oil spill can also happen after the crew of an oil tanker has cleaned the cargo tanks before loading a new cargo of crude oil.
After a cargo oil tank has been cleaned with water and chemicals the oil residue will float on the wash water in the bottom of the cargo tank. This water can be siphoned off and put through an oily water separator leaving only cargo oil residue in the bottom of the cargo tank. The new crude oil cargo can be loaded on top of the remaining old cargo oil.
However, sometimes the crew does the wrong thing and illegally pumps the oily waste overboard. Oil spills are considered form of pollution. The effects of oil spills can have wide ranging impacts that are often portrayed by the media as long lasting environmental disaster. The effects will depend on a variety of factors including the quantity and type of oil spilled and how it interacts with the marine environment. Oil spills may impact the environment in various ways. First, the physical smothering of organisms which is caused by oils with a high viscosity, in other words heavy oils.
Second, the chemical toxicity which is a characteristic of lighter chemical components which are more bio-available is absorbed into organs, tissues and cells, and can have sub-lethal or lethal toxic effects. Third, the ecological changes which is caused by the loss of key organisms with a specific function in an ecological community. They can be replaced by different species undertaking similar functions in which case the implications for the ecosystem as a whole may not be severe.
Only seventeen turtles were visibly oiled, but the rest died for the same reasons the birds did. Not only were the birds and sea turtles affected, but also the mammals, like whales and dolphins.
The mammals of the water have to come up to breathe the air. Since the water is infested with oil, they surface more to breath in fresh air. But instead of the fresh air that they are expecting, they breathe in the toxins that the oil gives off. So this means that the oil is not only affecting the sea, but the air too.
As for the beaches, well there is a total of miles that is oiled. Tar balls have appeared on beaches ranging from parts of Galveston to some parts of Florida. Mostly affecting Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi. This has been mostly affecting the tourism.
Many of the beaches were closed, causing the tourism rate to go down. The spill happened at 5, feet below sea level. This will affect things lower in the ocean too. The affects of this could last for decades, because of the natural process that breaks down the oil.
This will make it dense enough to sink to the bottom of the ocean floor, affecting the sea-dwellers of the ocean for decades.
This could even build up over time. The disaster that struck America in April , will affect many different aspects, from money to the environment. It will affect BP, tourism, and fishing industries, causing them to lose money.
It will also affect the animals, and cause long-term affects on the environment. Is Another Deepwater Disaster Inevitable? How Long to Recover? Has the Damage been Exaggerated? Then, in silence, I can only hope my eyes will speak my heart. Which of your works would you like to tell your friends about?
The term oil spill is sometimes used to refer to marine oil spills where there is a release of oil into the ocean, coastal waters or any other water body. On the land the oil spills are usually restricted and their impact can be eliminated quite easily compared to marine oil spills.
Oil Spills essays An oil spill can be defined as an accidental or deliberate dumping of oil or petroleum products into the ocean and its coastal waters, bays, and harbors, or onto land, or into rivers or lakes (Holum ). Between one and ten million metric tons (one metric ton is kilograms).
Oct 17, · Among many other oil spills, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, occurred on April 20, was recorded as the greatest environmental disaster in our history (BP leak the world's worst accidental oil spill, ). The spill was referred to as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, BP oil spill, Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and BP oil disaster. It was first said that little oil had actually leaked into the ocean but a little over a month later the estimate was 12,, barrels of crude oil being leaked per day.
Essay 1 The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was an oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico which flowed for three months in This spill had a catastrophic on the environment causing extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats as . Essay on oil spills Pipeline primer the santa barbara in this project, effects and offshore oil spill in accordance with the ocean. With the marine pollution: an energy company, essay on land.