High Quantities Nuclear reaction releases a million times more energy, as compared to hydro or wind energy. Large quantity of energy is generated from a single nuclear power plant. High Reserves Nuclear reactors make use of uranium as fuel and produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of uranium.
The Earth has the high reserves of uranium. Current estimates put the uranium supply as enough to last for 30 to 60 years. Moreover other fuel cycles like Thorium are available for power generation. Whereas, oil reserves and other fossil type fuels are likely to run out shortly.
Reliability Nuclear power plants operate reliably and have a continuous output of power. The plants do not generally face operations and maintenance problems. This is a contrast to other alternative energies which depend on the activity of the weather.
Low Operating cost Although nuclear power reactors are expensive to build, they are relatively cheap to operate. Fuel is inexpensive and a plant can be operated by small number of people, approximately 10 people. Progress in Nuclear Energy is an international review journal covering all aspects of nuclear science and engineering. In keeping with the maturity of nuclear power , articles on safety, siting and environmental problems are encouraged, as are those associated with economics and fuel management.
However, basic physics and engineering will remain an important aspect of the editorial policy. Articles published are either of a review nature or present new material in more depth. They are aimed at researchers and technically-oriented managers working in the nuclear energy field.
Please note the following: Short research papers should be submitted to the journal Annals in Nuclear Energy. Such papers, although worthy, are best left as laboratory reports whereas Progress in Nuclear Energy seeks papers of originality, which are archival in nature, in the fields of mathematical and experimental nuclear technology, including fission, fusion blanket physics, radiation damage , safety, materials aspects, economics, etc. Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more.
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This journal has partnered with Heliyon , an open access journal from Elsevier publishing quality peer reviewed research across all disciplines. Authors can quickly and easily transfer their research from a Partner Journal to Heliyon without the need to edit, reformat or resubmit. Home Journals Progress in Nuclear Energy. This is clearly a major advantage of nuclear energy, but with the pros come the cons. Spent nuclear energy produces waste.
Nuclear waste is highly radioactive and extremely dangerous. Radioactivity is the decomposition of a nucleus that produces another, smaller nucleus and high amounts of energy in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, and protons.
This release of energy is what is so harmful to living organisms. As the radiation strikes living tissue, it can knock electrons out of their orbit around a given atom. This loss of electrons can cause anything from death, genetic mutations, to cancer. This process of decay takes tens of thousand of years for the nucleus to become stable.
Department of Energy is responsible for the disposal of all nuclear waste. The DOE wants to put the spent radioactive material in a glass-like substance to keep it from mixing with the soil and water, and then bury the waste in rock formations deep inside the earth. However, due to antinuclear activists, this plan is on hold. During the cold war, tons of nuclear waste was produced by the military to make nuclear weapons.
To solve the disposal problem, the DOE decided to bury the nuclear waste in salt beds located in New Mexico. These salt beds have been stable for over million years and are over 2, feet thick. They safely contain and secure the hazardous nuclear waste. Although a place to secure the radioactive waste produced during the cold war has been established, there is still no safe house for the commercial nuclear waste.
As a result, the commercial radioactive waste is being stockpiled at reactor sites around the U. The waste is usually stored in special steel containers that are stacked in pools of water close to the reactor. Alternatives to solve the disposal of nuclear waste are to rocket the waste into the sun, bury it deep in the ocean, or encase it in concrete chambers underground.
The major concern of nuclear fission is a nuclear meltdown. A nuclear meltdown is when the nuclear fuel becomes so hot it melts through the metal concrete structures protecting it. It could then reach temperatures of 5, degrees F, seep into the ground, and reach the water table.
A large amount of radioactive material would also reach the atmosphere, affecting millions of people. Such an incident happened on April 26, , at the Chernobyl power plant in the Soviet Union. Some lab technicians made mistakes that led to two huge steam explosions that blew the roof off the building. This explosion released a cloud of deadly radiation into the air, affecting much of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.
More than , people had to be evacuated, and the radiation levels are still so high that nobody can return. This incident gives us the reality of a nuclear accident: The effects of a nuclear accident are catastrophic, but the probability that the accident will occur are extremely low.
Human error ranks first among the most contributing factors to nuclear accidents, as the scenario in Chernobyl displays. As a result, nuclear companies give their employees extensive training and are always researching better safety measures to establish within the reactor. Due to the large magnitude of a nuclear accident, several precautions are taken within the design of a nuclear power plant to prevent such an incident. To begin with, enriched Uranium is collected into bundles and submerged into water, which acts as a coolant.
As the temperature increases, the water begins to turn into steam and build pressure. This steam pressure is used to turn a turbine, which spins a generator to produce electricity. A nuclear power plant is identical to any other fossil fuel plant. The only difference is the source of energy used to generate steam. Although the water surrounding the bundles acts as a coolant, it is not enough to keep the enriched Uranium from overheating and melting. To control the flow of neutrons between the bundles, control rods are lowered between them.
Control rods are made of special materials that absorb neutrons. To increase the flow of neutrons between bundles thus creating more heat and electricity , the rods are raised. To decrease the flow, they are simply lowered to prevent the neutrons from colliding and producing energy.
Nuclear energy is a comparatively new source of energy. The first nuclear power plant was commissioned in June in Obninsk, Russia. The first nuclear power plant was commissioned in June in Obninsk, Russia.
Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy research papers examine a few alternative energy sources. Nuclear power provides approximately one-fifth of the United State’s electricity. The advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy continue to be a matter of debate and controversy.
Nuclear energy research papers Nuclear energy is one of the most efficient sources of energy available. It produces more energy than any other fuel of the same mass or volume. Aug 26, · News about Nuclear Energy, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. More News about nuclear energy, including commentary and archival articles .
In March, the former NASA scientist James Hansen (of the ppm limit fame) published a paper showing that nuclear energy has saved a total of million lives in its history worldwide just by displacing air pollution that is a known killer 2. That includes any deaths nuclear energy has been responsible for from its accidents. Essay: Nuclear Energy – Advantages and Disadvantages Abstract “Growing concerns over climate change have highlighted the need to step up contribution of nuclear energy in the energy mix and to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels in the years to come.