It is the distance moved by the component divided by the distanced moved by the mobile phase front. The mobile phase front is basically where the farthest component has travelled.
Therefore a very nonpolar substance will have an R f of close to one while a very polar substance will have a very small R f value. In this laboratory, paper chromatography was used to identify ink samples. However, there are many other methods that identify ink samples.
Capillary Electrophoresis is one. Microscopy is exactly what it sounds like. Using a very strong magnifying lens, ink samples can be compared to others without actually putting the sample in a chemical test.
This reveals the chemical makeup of ink quicker than ever. In this lab, the goal was to create a solution of the most ideal polarity to send chromatographs through.
After a standard amongst the group was found the best looking sample two solutions in which our chromatographs were submerged was agreed upon. After we received unknowns our goal was to put it through chromatography and identify the ink samples with the standard we agreed upon. To achieve best results and have the best chance to identify unknowns, the stationary phase must be as polar as possible without being just water. Therefore, 1 part methanol, and 2 parts water should yield a polar solution that will not allow our ink sample mobile phase to travel as far.
This solution of 1 part methanol and 2 parts water will have a polarity of 8. When the original chromatograph was made using different food dyes this will be explained in the Procedure section the polarity was 5.
Therefore, the more polar the stationary phase is, the less distance travelled, and the better the results will be. Before any unknowns were identified and any solutions made, we had to first understand how chromatography worked. Section A helped prepared us to do just that. The first step was to get one piece of chromatography paper and label it. To label it I had to measure 0. Then I measured every 1 cm and put a hash mark.
A capillary tube was made for the transfer of dyes and were placed on each hash mark. I then made a cylinder out of my paper and stapled it leaving a slight gap. I made a solution of 2: The paper was then placed in the solution with the mobile phases closest to the solution and placed a cup over it.
The process took about minutes until it was complete. When the paper was dried the solvent front was determined and the R f values were found. It was from this part of the experiment that I realized the ink has spread too far and that a different solution needed to be made. I was also able to identify all the components of the dyes that were made up of more than one. He made the dye because we shared the dyes and samples initially.
The samples that a mixture of components were determined solely by the R f values. This was the gateway to creating my own solution to determine the unknown samples. Initially each member of the group, Grei, Ryan, Chris, and I made one. It is noted that we did not necessarily pick random combinations of water and an alcohol. The Snyder Index gives relative polarity values up to 9. Water has the value of 9 and it is the most polar. See Table 1 below for the Snyder index To determine polarity by the Snyder index, the values of each part are added up and divided by the number of parts in the solution.
Ryan made a solution of 6. I made a sample of 8. Chris made a solution of 8. After making a chromatograph and listing putting a sample of each of our 15 pens we ran the first test.
After the testing was done, we each did one more test with different polarities that we thought would be better based on our first polarities. This time I made a solution of 8.
Grei ran a 7. Ryan ran a 7. Lastly, Chris ran a 7. I will begin by showing the results of the very first chromatograph ran and briefly describing what was seen. I will move on to each chromatograph in order until are shown and briefly explained. I will also show the initial list of different dyes such as the cheddar cheese and the Kool-Aid just to show that R f values can be useful, however, they were not useful in the ink experiment. Samples from left to right were all food dyes and combinations.
As you can see the 2: This is why the different solutions were to be made. Also the dots show where to measure for the R f values. In all the chromatographs made, the ink samples are in order from the left to right with the following inks listed in table 3. Chromatograph 4 was the standard that Ryan made. It had a 6. Chromatographs 6 and 7 were my unknowns with 6. This could be because the beat has a root where it stores starch.
This would require it to undergo photosynthesis more times in order for its to create more glucose to store. The increased number of accessory pigments allows for a wider range of light to be taken in and converted into energy excitation of electrons on the chlorophyll for the photosynthetic process. Chlorophyll A and B. This was shown when the paper chromatography was done, the beat leaf trials had many different coloured pigments over the paper, vs the spinach leaf only a green pigment which represented that only chlorophyll was present.
I would really appreciate it. Biochemistry Ticker Tape lab answers Lab: Refraction of Light- Air into Glass Answers. Because purification of substances is required to determine their properties, chromatography is an indispensable tool in the sciences concerned with chemical substances and their reactions.
Chromatography is also used to compare and describe chemical substances. The chromatographic sequence of sorbed substances is related to their atomic and molecular structures.
A change in a chemical substance produced by a chemical or biological reaction often alters the solubility and migration rate. With this knowledge, alterations or changes can be detected in the substance. In all chromatographic separations, there is an important relationship between the solvent, the chromatography paper, and the mixture. For a particular mixture, the solvent and the paper must be chosen so the solubility is reversible and be selective for the components of the mixture.
The main requirement, though, of the solvent is to dissolve the mixture needing to be separated. For the separation of a mixture, the substances making up the mixture must be evenly dispersed in a solution, a vapor, or a gas. Once all of the above criteria have been met, chromatography can be a simple tool for separating and comparing chemical mixtures. Materials The materials used for this lab are paper, pencil, eraser, filter paper, test tube, rubber stopper, paper clip, metric ruler, black felt-tip pen, and a computer.
Methods The first step of the method is to bend a paper clip so that it is straight with a hook at one end. Push the straight end of the paper clip into the bottom of the rubber stopper.
Next, you hang a thin strip of filter paper on the hooked end of the paper clip. Insert the paper strip into the test tube. The paper should not touch the sides of the test tube and should almost touch the bottom of the test tube.
Now you will remove the paper strip from the test tube. Draw a solid 5-mm-wide band about 25 mm from the bottom of the paper, using the black felt-tip pen. Use a pencil to draw a line across the paper strip 10 cm above the black band.
Pour about 2 mL of water into the test tube. The water will act as a solvent.
Paper Chromatography Experiment Report Type of paper: Research Papers Subject: Medicine Words: Introduction lab coat, filter paper, toothpick, ninhydrin solution, mixtures to be identified and known amino acids. Discussion/Analysis. The collected data .
paper chromatography report. Paper Chromatography: Introduction The materials used for this lab are paper, pencil, eraser, filter paper, test tube, rubber stopper, paper clip, metric ruler, black felt-tip pen, and a computer. Methods.
Paper chromatography experiment 1. Clarinda clare linusDiploma In Medical Sciences – January 2. At the end of this laboratory activity, the students should be able to: Be introduced to the principles and terminology of chromatography and demonstrate separation of the dyes in colored pens with paper chromatography. Chromatography Lab Answers Purpose The purpose of the experiment is to determine the specific types of pigments found in a beat leaf and in a spinach leaf by using paper chromatography and two solvents: water soluble solvent and lipid soluble solvent.
Research & analysis report on a practical use for paper chromatography. Chromatography is a major operation used in many different operations in chemistry. Lab 6: Paper Chromatography Pages Pre-lab page No Post lab – Chromatogram must be turned in attached to lab report. Chromatography • Chromatography is an analytical technique used to separate the components of a mixture. • All forms of chromatography work on the.