Since texts have become increasingly mobile, and the same document may often be found in several different sources, following a set of rigid rules no longer suffices. Thus, the current system is based on a few guiding principles, rather than an extensive list of specific rules. While the handbook still describes how to cite sources, it is organized according to the process of documentation, rather than by the sources themselves.
This gives writers a flexible method that is near-universally applicable. Once you are familiar with the method, you can use it to document any type of source, for any type of paper, in any field.
When deciding how to cite your source, start by consulting the list of core elements. In your citation, the elements should be listed in the following order:. Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elements , and information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located. For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container.
The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container. You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books , or watched a television series on Netflix.
It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used. Accessed 27 May In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc.
If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.
Current Conditions and Future Directions. The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Date of access if applicable. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. Accessed 10 May Give the instructor name. Then list the title of the course or the school catalog designation for the course in italics.
Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title. Survey of the Literature of England. Accessed 31 May Purdue U, 20 Apr. For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. Usually, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites.
If the publisher is the same as the website name, only list it once. Accessed 6 July Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, and the date of access.
The Family of Charles IV. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado , www. Accessed 22 May Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive , www. If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website.
If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author. Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, URL, and the date of access.
Accessed 4 May For all online scholarly journals, provide the author s name s , the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format i. Current Conditions and Future Directions.
The International Online-Only Journal, vol. Accessed 20 May Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. If an element cannot be found or does not apply to the source being cited, omit that element from the entry.
End the entry with a period. Each core element is explained in detail with examples on its own page under the Works Cited Entries Core Elements dropdown menu. The standard citation style guide for the humanities, especially languages and literature, is the MLA Handbook , 8th edition, Two types of citations are included in most research papers: In-text citations appear in the body of your paper.
They identify your use of an idea or quotation from one of your sources. Information about the sources you use in your work are included as a separate list at the end of the paper. Any source information that you provide in an in-text citation must correspond to a source in your Works Cited page.
The Modern Language Association, or MLA, produces a style guide that is used by many liberal arts and humanities to cite sources and format papers. Citing sources using the correct style not only ensures that your research paper has a uniform style but that those reading your paper can easily identify the work you are.
Citation Machine helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your newspaper article in MLA format for free.
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