Introduction to Quantitative Research — The following PDF is an article that provides an introduction to quantitative research.
Overview of Quantitative Research — Following is a narrated PowerPoint presentation that provides an excellent overview of quantitative research and the issues that will be discussed in these Research Ready modules. A Basic Introduction — Following is a link to a Slideshare presentation that offers and overview to quantitative research and data.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Quantitative Research — This link provides lists of the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research. Research Methods — This resource describes the basic characteristics of quantitative research and gives an overview of methodologies, as well as a comparison with qualitative research. Qualitative and Quantitative Research — The link below contains a chart that describes the characteristics of quantitative research and compares them the characteristics of qualitative research.
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An Overview of Quantitative Research This modules provides a basic overview of quantitative research, including its key characteristics and advantages.
Describe the uses of quantitative research design. Provide examples of when quantitative research methodology should be used. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research.
The data collected is numeric, allowing for collection of data from a large sample size. Statistical analysis allows for greater objectivity when reviewing results and therefore, results are independent of the researcher.
Numerical results can be displayed in graphs, charts, tables and other formats that allow for better interpretation. Data analysis is less time-consuming and can often be done using statistical software. Results can be generalized if the data are based on random samples and the sample size was sufficient. Data collection methods can be relatively quick, depending on the type of data being collected. Numerical quantitative data may be viewed as more credible and reliable, especially to policy makers, decision makers, and administrators.
How often do college students between the ages of access Facebook? What is the difference in the number of calories consumed between male and female high school students? If the research project has sufficient funding, then a professional transcriber can be hired to do the work.
If this is the case, then it is a good idea to sit down with the transcriber, if possible, and talk through the research and what the participants were talking about. This background knowledge for the transcriber is especially important in research in which people are using jargon or medical terms as in pharmacy practice. Involving your transcriber in this way makes the work both easier and more rewarding, as he or she will feel part of the team.
Transcription editing software is also available, but it is expensive. For example, ELAN more formally known as EUDICO Linguistic Annotator, developed at the Technical University of Berlin 8 is a tool that can help keep data organized by linking media and data files particularly valuable if, for example, video-taping of interviews is complemented by transcriptions.
It can also be helpful in searching complex data sets. Products such as ELAN do not actually automatically transcribe interviews or complete analyses, and they do require some time and effort to learn; nonetheless, for some research applications, it may be a valuable to consider such software tools. All audio recordings should be transcribed verbatim, regardless of how intelligible the transcript may be when it is read back.
Lines of text should be numbered. Once the transcription is complete, the researcher should read it while listening to the recording and do the following: Dealing with the transcription of a focus group is slightly more difficult, as multiple voices are involved.
In addition, the focus group will usually have 2 facilitators, whose respective roles will help in making sense of the data. While one facilitator guides participants through the topic, the other can make notes about context and group dynamics.
While continuing with the processes of coding and theming described in the next 2 sections , it is important to consider not just what the person is saying but also what they are not saying. For example, is a lengthy pause an indication that the participant is finding the subject difficult, or is the person simply deciding what to say?
Smith 9 suggested a qualitative research method known as interpretative phenomenological analysis, which has 2 basic tenets: Larkin and others 10 discussed the importance of not just providing a description of what participants say. Rather, interpretative phenomenological analysis is about getting underneath what a person is saying to try to truly understand the world from his or her perspective.
Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding. Field notes compiled during an interview can be a useful complementary source of information to facilitate this process, as the gap in time between an interview, transcribing, and coding can result in memory bias regarding nonverbal or environmental context issues that may affect interpretation of data. Coding can be done by hand on a hard copy of the transcript, by making notes in the margin or by highlighting and naming sections of text.
More commonly, researchers use qualitative research software e. It is advised that researchers undertake a formal course in the use of such software or seek supervision from a researcher experienced in these tools.
If we read a little more deeply, we can ask ourselves how the participant might have come to feel that the doctor assumed he or she was aware of the diagnosis or indeed that they had only just been told the diagnosis. There are a number of pauses in the narrative that might suggest the participant is finding it difficult to recall that experience. At the end of this excerpt, the participant just trails off, recalling that no-one showed any interest, which makes for very moving reading.
There are no statistical tests that can be used to check reliability and validity as there are in quantitative research. This simple act can result in revisions to the codes and can help to clarify and confirm the research findings.
Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way. Thus, when the findings are organized for presentation, each theme can become the heading of a section in the report or presentation.
Implications for real life e. This synthesis is the aim of the final stage of qualitative research. There are a number of ways in which researchers can synthesize and present their findings, but any conclusions drawn by the researchers must be supported by direct quotations from the participants. The work of Latif and others 12 gives an example of how qualitative research findings might be presented. As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report.
The final presentation of the research will usually be in the form of a report or a paper and so should follow accepted academic guidelines. In particular, the article should begin with an introduction, including a literature review and rationale for the research. There should be a section on the chosen methodology and a brief discussion about why qualitative methodology was most appropriate for the study question and why one particular methodology e.
The method itself should then be described, including ethics approval, choice of participants, mode of recruitment, and method of data collection e. The findings should be written as if a story is being told; as such, it is not necessary to have a lengthy discussion section at the end. As stated earlier, it is not the intention of qualitative research to allow the findings to be generalized, and therefore this is not, in itself, a limitation.
Planning out the way that findings are to be presented is helpful. It is useful to insert the headings of the sections the themes and then make a note of the codes that exemplify the thoughts and feelings of your participants. It is generally advisable to put in the quotations that you want to use for each theme, using each quotation only once.
After all this is done, the telling of the story can begin as you give your voice to the experiences of the participants, writing around their quotations. Finally, as appropriate, it is possible to include examples from literature or policy documents that add support for your findings. It can be used in pharmacy practice research to explore how patients feel about their health and their treatment.
An understanding of these issues can help pharmacists and other health care professionals to tailor health care to match the individual needs of patients and to develop a concordant relationship. Doing qualitative research is not easy and may require a complete rethink of how research is conducted, particularly for researchers who are more familiar with quantitative approaches.
There are many ways of conducting qualitative research, and this paper has covered some of the practical issues regarding data collection, analysis, and management. The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked:. The planned 2-year series is intended to appeal to relatively inexperienced researchers, with the goal of building research capacity among practising pharmacists.
The articles, presenting simple but rigorous guidance to encourage and support novice researchers, are being solicited from authors with appropriate expertise. Can J Hosp Pharm. Ethical issues in pharmacy practice research: Designing pharmacy practice research trials.
An introduction to developing surveys for pharmacy practice research. An introduction to the fundamentals of cohort and case—control studies. Austin Z, Sutton J. C an J Hosp Pharm. An introduction to the fundamentals of randomized controlled trials in pharmacy research. What do you need to know to get started? National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Copyright Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists.
In submitting their manuscripts, the authors transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership to CSHP. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Interpretation of Data Interpretation of the data will depend on the theoretical standpoint taken by researchers.
Transcribing and Checking For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that interviews or focus groups have been audio-recorded. Coding Once all of the research interviews have been transcribed and checked, it is time to begin coding. Theming Theming refers to the drawing together of codes from one or more transcripts to present the findings of qualitative research in a coherent and meaningful way.
Planning and Writing the Report As has been suggested above, if researchers code and theme their material appropriately, they will naturally find the headings for sections of their report. Excerpt from a sample transcript The participant age late 50s had suffered from a chronic mental health illness for 30 years. As the participant talked about past experiences, the researcher asked: What was treatment like 30 years ago? Umm—well it was pretty much they could do what they wanted with you because I was put into the er, the er kind of system er, I was just on.
Quantitative data collection methods are based on random sampling and structured data collection instruments. Findings of quantitative studies are usually easy .
COLLECTION METHODS 5. DATA COLLECTION METHODS: SOME TIPS AND COMPARISONS In the previous chapter, we identified two broad types of evaluation supervision to yield trustworthy data. Some quantitative research methods can be mastered easily with the help of simple training manuals;.
Quantitative and Qualitative Data collection methods. The Quantitative data collection methods, rely on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. They produce results that . Overview of Qualitative And Quantitative Data Collection Methods Much of the workings of the world today are controlled and powered by information, giving .
Data Colection – Quantitative Research – This resources provides links to information relating to a variety of ways to collect quantitative data. Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Methods - The link below provides specific example of instruments and methods used to collect quantitative data. Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering.