The CJS is to respond in the name of society when there is a crime that has been committed. The CJS spans from federal, state, and local governments. Within the system, there are three agencies that work together as a system to implement the criminal justice functions. The agencies are law enforcement, the courts, and the corrections. Each one of these agencies has a criminal justice process that proved the justice to the victims and offenders. The goals of the CJS are deterrence, incapacitation, retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration.
Deterrence is giving trying to prevent crime with fear. Specific deterrence happens when an offender is arrested and has decided not to commit and other crimes because they understand the consequences of their behavior. General deterrence is taken a person who is caught and displaying to the public in hopes to scare them into not wanted the same consequences. Incapacitation removing offenders from society in some incarceration. Retribution is when revenge is taken on a perpetrator that must be punished.
Rehabilitation is taking a criminal and reforming them. Restoration is making a victim find peace and forgiving the offender. These goals are to help in the ways the CJS do their jobs efficiently. The first component of the CJS is law enforcement that would be the police. The police enforce the laws by serving the public and keeping them safe. Police investigate crimes, apprehend offenders, reduce and prevent crimes, maintain public orders, ensure community safety, respond to emergencies, and protects fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals.
The courts are the once that conduct fair and impartial trials. The last component is the corrections, which carry out the sentencing of the courts. The corrections also provides safe and humane custody and supervision to the offenders, helps protect the community, respects the legal and human rights, rehabilitees, reforms, and reintegrates convicts. The criminal justice process begins with the investigation and arrest of an offender. After all the evidence is collected there is a warrant put out the offender, after being arrested they are taking into booking.
The next process is the pre-trail. They then move to the next step of the trail, which lays everything out examine all the facts and argue the evidence. When the trail ends, the next step is the sentencing of the offender. When being sentence the jury or judge will make the decision of guilty or not guilty. For instance, the poor are given court-appointed legal representatives, who have a lot of cases to handle and may be receiving low wages.
As a result, there is a high likelihood that these lawyers will handle their cases in a hasty manner due to the lack of enough time. Conversely, wealthy defendants recruit the teams of resourceful and skilled lawyers who, most of the time, ensure that a ruling is passed in favor of clients. The criminal justice system, in conjunction with prisons, serves the society through isolating criminals from the public, deterring crimes and ensuring that criminals are punished for their crimes.
The system also helps in rehabilitating criminals into useful people in the society. The examples of programs aimed at rehabilitating criminals include the personal counseling, education, as well as vocational training equipping them with skills that enable them to earn a living in the outside world without indulging into criminal activities. The current prisons are congested due to the dramatic increase in inmate populations in the recent decades.
The extremely brutal circumstances in prisons have caused prisoners to undergo various health problems such as hypertension, psychological disorders, heart disease, and even suicide CliffsNotes, Despite the increase in the number of incarcerated populations in the US, crimes have also continued to increase. This is something that many sociologists have not been able to explain.
In this study paper, we explore various issues faced by the criminal justice system. The focus will be on the prison overcrowding, mental illness issues, alternative drug sentencing, immigration, medical marijuana, a capital punishment, and a prison reform. In the actual sense, these form the outstanding issues in any criminal justice system, which calls for the considerable attention. The issue of prison populations in the criminal justice system ought to be addressed as it poses some significant challenges to the operations of government.
Drug sentencing is a veritable offense in the present criminal system with most people engaging into this illegal act. There have been several suggestions to the judicial system to come up with other alternatives to sentencing drug offenders apart from their imprisonment. Conversely, mental illness is a serious challenge to the criminal justice system, with no good mechanisms in place to handle such offenders.
Prison Overcrowding The understanding of prison populations and the dangers of overcrowding are the issues, which require the substantial attention from different quarters of the criminal justice system. As the increasing inmate population is a mounting apprehension in America, many people decree enforcement organizations and scholastic experts have analyzed information concerning the situation.
They are working towards finding a lasting solution Smith, There are various reasons behind the current prison overcrowding issues such as the lack of sufficient space in prisons, unpredictable crime rates, alterations to laws and enhancements to decree the enforcement diplomacy. Before any solution to the problem of prison overcrowding is reached, the necessary authorities need to understand the causes of problem.
Researchers have concluded that the major reasons behind prison overcrowding are harsher penalties imposed on criminal activities. There are certain criminal offences, which do not call for harsh penalties such as imprisonment. The criminal justice system needs to come with alternative punishments to some criminal offences apart from imprisonment. This means that only severe criminal offenders should receive the imprisonment punishment.
This will help to reduce the number of prisoners requiring the government surveillance. Another reason behind prison overcrowding is the ever-increasing changes to laws, which make new actions illegitimate. The rise of criminal activities will increase the number of people being prosecuted at an alarming rate. In spite of changes to illegal activities, the judicial system does not provide alternative punishments; hence, all offenders face the imprisonment option.
The research also indicates that the reason behind prison overcrowding is the high recidivism rates, and, therefore, improvements to the penal system are necessary. The issue of prison overcrowding is a problem in many amenities, but it is not apparent whether the impact it has on prisons is negative or positive. Prison overcrowding leads to double ceiling where by inmates have to share prison spaces, which nullifies the whole idea of confinement Smith, Overcrowding has a direct consequence on the penitentiary administration as it creates a far more demanding atmosphere on the corrections for wardens and officers.
Nearly , persons with vigorous symptoms of relentless mental illness health are admitted to prisons annually. The criminal justice, mental health professional and advocates have called for distraction labors to tie offenders with mental illness health to community-based services to split their unrelenting cycling through the illegal justice, mental physical condition, and substance abuse management systems and to lessen the number of people with the psychological illness in penitentiary.
According to Fiack , the crucial issue affecting the criminal justice system is the lack of an all-inclusive approach to all the issues concerned in giving care and management to persons with mental illness that have become concerned with the criminal integrity system.
There needs to be a good and promising program and models to help the judicial system in dealing with offenders with mental instabilities. In the recent cases, there have been the offenders claiming mental instability, which is hard for the system to evaluate. On the other hand, criminal offenders with the mental instability pose a challenge to the judicial system in terms of management.
There are no sufficient facilities to manage and host criminal offenders with the mental instability. This means that these offenders will have to stay with normal persons, which pose danger to all parties. The justice system needs to come up with the appropriate facilities for the mentally unstable offenders as they need the exceptional care irrespectively of their status in the society.
The proposed option to the issue of mental illness is a jail diversion, which refers to the specific programs, which display prisoners in contact with the unlawful justice organization for the existence of any mental disorder. In this case, the justice system employs mental physical condition professionals to assess the detainees and discuss with prosecutors, to defense a legal representative, community-based psychological health providers and magistrates.
The essence is to develop community-based mental health dispositions for the mentally ill detainees Fiack, The jail diversion option is sought as a substitute to examination, as a condition of a lessening in charges, or as a fulfillment for offences. Once such a temperament has been determined upon, the distraction program links the patron to community-based mental physical condition services. Even though, jail distraction programs emerge to have an extensive support, few researches have methodically examined the efficiency of diversion programs using the client conclusion statistics.
It is evident that the current programs benefit the targeted recipients in relation to the symptoms stabilization, abridged jail moment, higher echelon community modification, and unwavering involvement in the society mental physical condition services Fiack, Alternative Drug Sentencing Drug criminal offenders have been on the rise in the recent years.
Drug possession and use was and still is a serious criminal offence in the US and other parts of the world. For this reason, all drug offences have an imprisonment penalty. This affects both the young and adult offenders in connection with a drug abuse. The increase in drug offenders has, however, not been met with proper facilities to uphold the offenders. For instance, prisons have remained overcrowded because of the high number of offenders most of whom are being drug abuse offenders.
There have been calls for the justice system to come up with alternative forms of sentencing drug offenders apart from imprisonment Smith, For instance, the courts can employ some probation sentences for drug offenders. In this case, the drug offenders will be under various programs to monitor their conduct and failure to change the calls for harsh penalties.
Drug offenders, especially for the minor cases, can be put under probation for the specified period to ensure a behavior change and stop the drug abuse. Probation sentences do not require any imprisonment as the offenders will only be under surveillance and not confined to the certain facility. Defendants found guilty of a drug offense are eligible for a term of probation unless the individual is convicted of a much serious drug crime.
Immigration Immigration refers to the moving of persons from one nation to another so as to establish the home in the new country. The reasons for immigration include work, studies and etc. Every nation has its own immigration laws in order to check the number of people entering and leaving its borders. According to Archibold , the immigration law is a government policy that checks the movement of people to the particular country. Immigration laws govern the legal status of foreigners in such matters like citizenship.
These laws differ among various countries and are determined by the political climate of the country and its state of security. A majority of nations have the laws which select a process for naturalizing immigrants Archibold, For example, the United States permits over one million foreigners every year to become its lawful permanent residents, making it the leading nation in the world to receive such a large number of people. The illegal immigration began in the U.
In , a state law was passed that forbade the entry of prostitutes and criminals in the U. The law may have affected very few immigrants, but it marked the beginning of division between legal and illegal immigrants. The largest immigration wave was witnessed between and , in which Since then, people from all over the world have kept on travelling to America, to look for better opportunities in education, employment and etc.
The main reasons for placing laws to curb immigration include checking the movement of people from one country to another, preventing a crime, controlling the spread of contagious diseases, protecting jobs for local people, as well as for the national security.
Medical Marijuana Marijuana is classified as a prohibited drug in numerous countries and has been utilized by humans for many years. However, there has been an increasing call to legalize marijuana in the past 2 decades, owing to the medicinal benefits that are derived from the substance. Marijuana is made from drying the flowers and leaves of Cannabis sativa.
Its effects are produced by deltatetrahydrocannabinol, the active chemical in marijuana. This is evident by the fact that the drug has been legalized in only fourteen states and the District of Columbia since Uddin, There has been a particular increase in the use of marijuana amongst teenagers over the years.
This popularity of marijuana is a reflection of what drug officials and researchers maintain is the increasing perception amongst teenagers that the habitual utilization of marijuana has a minimal risk.
According to experts, this enhanced perception is attributed to the increased acquaintance with medical marijuana and the easy access to the drug. The supporters of this drug claim that marijuana is safer to use than alcohol for both individual people and the society. According to the supporter of marijuana from Colorado, the aim for the legalization of substance is to keep safe our communities through regulating the use of this substance especially among young people and not to increase the access to marijuana.
It is agreed amongst supporters of legalization of medial marijuana that people are abusing the substance and that legalizing the drug would help fixing this problem. Benefits of Medical Marijuana Pain Relief A key benefit associated with using medicinal marijuana is to relieve the neuropathic or chronic pain.
Increased Appetite Using marijuana stimulates the metabolism of body, thus, causing users to have an increased appetite. There are several diseases that cause a decrease in appetite such as the HIV and cancer. As a result, patients loose a considerable amount of weight that impacts on their recovery process negatively.
In order to fight against the diseases or infection, the human body needs energy in the form of consumed food. Medical marijuana is, therefore, vital to such patients as it helps to stimulate their appetites. Decreased Nausea Many patients experience vomiting or nausea due to the effects of some diseases and treatments, for example chemotherapy.
The effective control of such symptoms helps to enhance the quality of life of patients and even to increase their reception to various treatments they are receiving. Muscle Relaxation Inhaling marijuana smoke helps to relax body muscles. Unidd states that patients suffering from the repeated muscle tightness usually find it difficult to complete the tasks connected with everyday activities.
Such people can benefit from using medical marijuana because the drug has a capacity of reducing symptoms of muscle pains and tensions. Medical marijuana is, therefore, beneficial to such people by enhancing their capability to move normally, as well as to promote their general quality of life in a positive manner. Capital Punishment Capital punishment, also known as a death sentence, refers to putting to death an individual by the state to punish him or her for a crime Keyzer, Throughout the history, capital punishment has been used in the societies to contain political rebels and punish for the capital crimes.
Currently, capital punishment is reserved to a punish treason, an intentional murder, and espionage. In certain states, adultery, rape, sodomy, and even apostasy also trigger the death penalty. In China, for example, the severe corruption cases and human trafficking are punished via the death penalty. The question is whether capital punishment prevents or deters crimes.
Do prospective assassins take into consideration the possibility that they might face a capital punishment prior to murdering someone? My answer is definitely no. Though capital punishment has been employed as a means of deterring crime for a long time, its deterrence value is an issue that continues to incite a heated debate among those supporting and those being against the punishment Keyzer, Below is a discussion of capital punishment as a means of deterring crimes.
Capital punishment as a means of deterring crime is based on the notion that by executing murderers, other prospect criminals are threatened by the punishment that prevents them from committing more crimes. This is referred to as a general deterrence. There is also the specific deterrence in which the convicted criminal is murdered to prevent him or her from carrying out further crimes Keyzer, Both the general and specific deterrence have the incited heated debate due to the conflicting evidence from several studies conducted on this issue.
Proponents of capital punishment argue that since murder cases are serious crimes against humanity, it is, therefore, justifiable to employ the death penalty to punish murderers to prevent them and other potential murderers from committing future crimes. Their argument is based on the fact that death is feared by most people, thus, making capital punishment effective in deterring further crimes because people fear of being murdered.
However, according to Keyzer , the majority of murders are carried out impulsively either during the moments of passion or by the people under the influence of drugs. Potential murderers are driven by passion to kill not considering the consequences of their actions, and under such circumstances, the threat of punishment does not prevent them from committing crimes.
This opinion is reiterated in the remarks of Jim Mattox, the former Attorney General of Texas, who said that most executions, which hadtaken place in Texas, were premeditated and not deterred even by the knowledge of existence of capital punishment Keyzer, In addition, if such serious crime as a murder should be punished by a severe punishment, then the long-term incarceration is brutal enough to deter criminals from committing similar crimes in future instead of killing them.
While capital punishment has been employed to prevent future murders, a series of studies by criminologists have proven that the punishment has an opposite effect, i. Through killings, capital punishment devalues the life of human beings and creates an impression to the society that it is proper to kill under certain situations.
The Criminal Justice System has many components that make up its system. The police, corrections, and the courts all play the role and act together in trying to maintain the most respectable and functional CJS.
Criminal justice system is a phrase used to express the interdependent components of the courts, police, and correctional facilities in the government. The term also describes the criminal justice agencies found within states in a federal government.
- This essay intends to address the role that state agencies, both within the Criminal Justice System (CJS) and more broadly the institutions of education, employment and health, play in supporting and implementing diversionary programs for offenders with mental health problems. The Criminal Justice System Essay Words | 6 Pages. The criminal justice system is composed of three parts – Police, Courts and Corrections – and all three work together to protect an individual’s rights and the rights of society to live without fear of being a .
A criminal justice system refers to the system of government institutions and practices directed at maintaining the social control and deterring crime (CliffsNotes, ). The system is made up of three key parts, i.e. the legislature (to create laws), courts and correction facilities (prisons, jails, a parole and probation). The major components to the criminal justice system the police, the courts, and corrections (CJi, ). The police, made up of sheriff and police departments, enforce .