Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments. Reference citations also provide avenues for interested readers to follow up on aspects of your work -- they help weave the web of science.
You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views. The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen and the Council of Biology Editors You should acknowledge a source any time and every time you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source. Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations.
But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source.
You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page. Direct quotations that are more than 4 lines long should be set off from the rest of your paper by use of narrower margins and single spaced lines.
If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, distinguish them both in the in-text citation and in the reference list, by appending the letters a, b, c If your source of information is from a personal verbal communication, you would use the following format for the first citation from that person:.
If your source of information is from written correspondence a letter or e-mail , you would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter if dated. Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.
If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name:. If the journal does not have a volume or issue number, use the issue date , issue number of Volume and page numbers.
A journal article citation in this style should look as follows:. Smith J, Canton EM. Weight-based administration of dalteparin in obese patients. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. Works appear in the same order as used in the manuscript. Anthony Smith began writing for Demand Studios in May of and has since written over articles for them. He also writes for "The College Baseball Newsletter.
If you require peer-reviewed sources use reports with caution. Toggle action bar FAQ Actions. Print Tweet Share on Facebook Was this helpful? For multiple authors uses the same convention you would use with other citations. If no people are listed as authors use the organization as author. How do I cite a research paper with no authors but to organizing parties? There are over one hundred authors. If you have a source with seven or more authors you list the first six followed by an ellipses Like this the formatting in this example is off: Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain.
When to Cite References in Scientific Research Papers You should acknowledge a source any time (and every time) you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source. Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations.
You’ll most likely use APA format if your paper is on a scientific topic. Many behavioral and social sciences use APA’s standards and guidelines. The American Psychological Association’s guidelines do not specify how to cite sheet music. We suggest following the book format when citing sheet music. Our EasyBib APA citation.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 nd printing). Please use the example at the bottom of . In-text citations belong throughout the paper when paraphrasing or directly quoting something from the scientific journal article. Reference Page Citation. Type the last name of the author of the scientific journal article, a comma, the first initial of the author's first name and a period.
How to cite APA research paper. The APA or the American Psychological Association developed a referencing style called the APA style. Academic papers written in the social science discipline are the common subjects that use it. Thus, APA style is used in Anthropology, Geography, Political Science and Communication Studies. The American Psychological Association recommends to use in-text citations. Use the chapter as a reference to guide formal scientific writing and APA style, specifically. Scientific papers are not written in a vacuum; rather, they build on and extend prior WRITING IN APA STYLE. THE BASICS OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING IN APA STYLE THE BASICS OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING IN APA STYLE ˚ THE BASICS OF SCIENTIFIC WRITING IN APA.