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TERMS OF REFERENCE

in terms of (something)

❶The cost involved in moving, transferring, preparing, and otherwise handling inventory. The MRP system usually retains its ability to net against any occasional inventories of the item.

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A common carrier is liable for all shipment loss, damage, and delay with the exception of that caused by act of God, act of a public enemy, act of a public authority, act of the shipper, and the goods' inherent nature. A group of companies that agree to cooperate rather than compete, in producing a product or service. Thus limiting or regulating competition.

There are two definitions for this term: A storage rack consisting of multiple lines of gravity flow conveyors. A method of payment for goods in which documents transferring title are given to the buyer upon payment of cash to an intermediary acting for the seller. A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller in advance of shipment of goods.

The time it takes for cash to flow back into a company after it has been spent for raw materials. Cash with Order CWO: A method of payment for goods where cash is paid at the time of order, and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller.

A call center or order processing facility that receives orders directly from the customer based on defined catalog offerings, and ships directly to the customer. The management of product categories as strategic business units. This practice empowers a category manager with full responsibility for the assortment decisions, inventory levels, shelf-space allocation, promotions, and buying.

With this authority and responsibility, the category manager is able to more accurately judge the consumer buying patterns, product sales, and market trends of that category.

In quality management, a structured process used to organize ideas into logical groupings. Used in brainstorming and problem-solving exercises. Also known as Ishikawa or fish bone diagram. A manufacturing or service unit consisting of a number of workstations, and the materials transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them.

A supply chain planning methodology for locating distribution centers at approximately the location representing the minimum transportation costs between the plants, the distribution centers, and the markets. The organization of the dispatching function into one central location. This structure often involves the use of data collection devices for communication between the centralized dispatching function which usually reports to the production control department and the shop manufacturing departments.

The restriction of authority to make decisions to few managers. Inventory decision-making for all SKUs exercised from one office or department for an entire company. A supplier's certification that the supplies or services in question meet specified requirements. A negotiable document indicating that insurance has been secured under an open policy to cover loss or damage to a shipment while in transit.

A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. Used for customs and foreign exchange purposes. Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity: The grant of operating authority that common carriers receive. A carrier must prove that a public need exists and that the carrier is fit, willing, and able to provide the needed service.

The certificate may specify the commodities the carrier may haul, and the routes it may use. A for-hire air carrier that is subject to economic regulation and requires an operating certification to provide service. A status awarded to a supplier who consistently meets predetermined quality, cost, delivery, financial, and count objectives.

Incoming inspection may not be required. The sequence of customers who, in turn, consume the output of each other, forming a chain. For example, individuals are customers of a department store which in turn is the customer of a producer who is the customer of a material supplier.

The business process that coordinates and monitors all changes to the business processes and applications operated by the business, as well as to their internal equipment, resources, operating systems, and procedures. The change management discipline is carried out in a way that minimizes the risk of problems that will affect the operating environment and service delivery to the users.

A formal notification that a purchase order or shop order must be modified in some way. This change can result from a revised quantity, date, or specification by the customer; an engineering change; a change in inventory requirement data; etc. Process of making necessary adjustments to change or switchover the type of products produced on a manufacturing line. Changeovers usually lead to downtime and for the most part, companies try to minimize changeover time to help reduce costs.

A method whereby a business dispenses its product, such as a retail or distribution channel, call center, or a web-based electronic storefront. A push technology that allows users to subscribe to a web site to browse offline, automatically display updated pages on their screen savers, and download or receive notifications when pages in the web site are modified.

Channels are available only in browsers that support channel definitions such as Microsoft Internet Explorer version 4. This occurs when various sales channels within a company's supply chain compete with each other for the same business. An example is where a retail channel is in competition with a web-based channel set up by the company.

Members of a supply chain i. Any series of firms or individuals that participates in the flow of goods and services from the raw material supplier and producer to the final user or consumer. The shipment weight used in determining freight charges. The chargeable weight may be the dimensional weight or, for container shipments, the gross weight of the shipment less the tare weight of the container.

A warehouse area where a company maintains battery chargers and extra batteries to support a fleet of electrically powered materials handling equipment. The company must maintain this area in accordance with government safety regulations. A specialized framework that carries a rail or marine container. A wedge, usually made of hard rubber or steel, that is firmly placed under the wheel of a trailer, truck, or boxcar to stop it from rolling.

See Continuous Improvement CI. A motor carrier driver who drives a local route as opposed to a long-distance, intercity route. A federal regulatory agency that implemented economic regulatory controls over air carriers.

Carload rail service requiring shipper to meet minimum weight. A charge made against a carrier for loss, damage, delay, or overcharge. A classification of regulated carriers based upon annual operating revenues -- motor carriers of property: There are seven 7 Class 1 Railroads in the United States. Two Mexican and two Canadian railroads would also qualify, if they were US companies.

A grouping of goods or commodities under one general heading. All the items in the group make up a class. The freight rates that apply to all items in the class are called "class rates. An alphabetical listing of commodities, the class or rating into which the commodity is placed, and the minimum weight necessary for the rate discount; used in the class rate structure. A railroad terminal area where railcars are grouped together to form train units.

A document stating that a shipment is free to be imported into the country after all legal requirements have been met. A conventional or limited-purpose entity generally restricted to providing specialized services, such as clearing funds or settling accounts. A system build around material requirements planning that includes the additional planning processes of production planning sales and operations planning , master production scheduling, and capacity requirements planning.

Once this planning phase is complete and the plans have been accepted as realistic and attainable, the execution processes come into play. These processes include the manufacturing control process of input-output capacity measurement, detailed scheduling and dispatching, as well as anticipated delay reports from both the plant and suppliers, supplier scheduling, and so on.

The term "closed loop implies not only that each of these processes is included in the overall system, but also that feedback is provided by the execution processes so that the planning can be kept valid at all times..

The evolution of a supply chain from intra-organizational management to inter-organizational management. Co-packers are more frequently seen in consumer packaged goods and foods. A form of continuous replenishment in which the manufacturer is responsible for replenishment of standard merchandise, while the retailer manages the replenishment of promotional merchandise.

Water carriers that provide service along coasts serving ports on the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans or on the Gulf of Mexico. A numeric, or alphanumeric representation of text for exchanging commonly-used information.

Collaboration encompasses business planning, sales forecasting, and all operations required to replenish raw materials and finished goods.

Freight payable to the carrier at the port of discharge or ultimate destination. The consignee does not pay the freight charge if the cargo does not arrive at the destination.

All documents commercial invoices, bills of lading, etc. An aircraft specially designed to carry unitized cargo loads on the upper deck of the craft, forward of the passenger area.

See Cumulative Lead Time. A document created by the seller. It is an official document which is used to indicate, among other things, the name and address of the buyer and seller, the product s being shipped, and their value for customs, insurance, or other purposes. The area surrounding a city or town to which rate carriers quote for the city or town also apply; the ICC defines the area. The portion of the production capability that is currently in use, or is scheduled for use.

Committee of American Steamship Lines: An industry association representing subsidized U. Any article exchanged in trade, most commonly used to refer to raw materials and agricultural products. A clause that prohibits railroads from hauling commodities that they produced, mined, owned, or had an interest in. Grouping like parts or materials under one buyer's control for the procurement of all requirements to support production.

A code describing a commodity or a group of commodities pertaining to goods classification. This code can be carrier tariff or regulating in nature. The purchasing plan for a family of items. This would include the plan to manage the supplier base and solve problems. A rate for a specific commodity and its origin-destination. Transportation available to the public that does not provide special treatment to any one party and is regulated as to the rates charged, the liability assumed, and the service provided.

A common carrier must obtain a certificate of public convenience and necessity from the Federal Trade Commission for interstate traffic. Common carriers must serve, deliver, charge reasonable rates, and not discriminate. A cost that a company cannot directly assign to particular segments of the business; a cost that the company incurs for the business as a whole. An exempt for-hire air carrier that publishes a time schedule on specific routes; a special type of air taxi.

A system of values, beliefs, and behaviors inherent in a company. To optimize business performance, top management must define and create the necessary culture. A principle based on the assumption that an area will specialize in producing goods for which it has the greatest advantage or the least comparative disadvantage.

Value created by a company for its customers that clearly distinguishes it from the competition, provides its customers a reason to remain loyal. Benchmarking a product or service against competitors. A measure of customer service. All items on any given order must be delivered on time for the order to be considered as complete and on time.

Complete Manufacture to Ship Time: Average time from when a unit is declared shippable by manufacturing until the unit actually ships to a customer. Material that will contribute to a finished product but is not the finished product itself.

Examples include tires for an automobile, power supply for a personal computer, or a zipper for a ski parka. The use of computers to model design options to stimulate their performance. Training that is delivered via computer workstation and includes all training and testing materials. A group of vessel operators joined for the purpose of establishing freight rates. An ocean carrier who is a member of an association known as a "conference.

The arrangement of components as specified to produce an assembly. A process where the trigger to begin to manufacture, final assembly, or packaging of a product is an actual customer order or release rather than a market forecast. With regards to EDI, a formal notice by message or code from a electronic mailbox system or EDI server indicating that a message sent to a trading partner has reached its intended mailbox or has been retrieved by the addressee.

A purchase order issued to a supplier listing the goods or services and terms of an order placed orally or otherwise before the usual purchase document. An affirmative indication or judgment that a product or service has met the requirements of a relevant specification, contract, or regulation.

The Consolidated Rail Corporation established by the Regional Reorganization Act of to operate the bankrupt Penn Central Railroad and other bankrupt railroads in the Northeast; the 4-R Act of provided funding. The party to whom goods are shipped and delivered. The receiver of a freight shipment. The party who originates a shipment of goods shipper.

The sender of a freight shipment, usually the seller. Combining two or more shipments in order to realize lower transportation rates. Inbound consolidation from vendors is called make-bulk consolidation; outbound consolidation to customers is called break-bulk consolidation.

The location where consolidation takes place. Consolidator's Bill of Lading: A bill of lading issued by a consolidator as a receipt for merchandise that will be grouped with cargo obtained from other shippers. See also House Air Waybill. A group of companies that works together to jointly produce a product, service, or project.

A bottleneck, obstacle, or planned control that limits throughput or the utilization of capacity. A government official residing in a foreign country, charged with representing the interests of his or her country and its nationals. A formal statement made to the consul of a country describing merchandise to be shipped to that consul's country.

Approval must be obtained prior to shipment. Special forms signed by the consul of a country to which cargo is destined. A document, required by some foreign countries, describing a shipment of goods and showing information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a consular official of the foreign country, it is used by the country's custom. Database with information about a retailer's individual consumers used primarily for marketing and promotion.

An official Customs form used for declaration of reported goods, also showing the total duty due on such transaction. For travel to and from ports, containers are loaded onto truck chassis or on railroad flatcars. A vehicle built for the purpose of transporting a container so that, when a container and chassis are assembled, the produced unit serves as a road trailer. The storage area for empty containers.

Container Freight Station Charge: The charge assessed for services performed at the loading or discharge location. A type of steamship-line service in which cargo is transported between container freight stations, where containers may be stuffed, stripped, or consolidated.

Usually used for less-than-container load shipments. An identifier assigned to a container by a carrier. A shipment method in which commodities are placed in containers, and after initial loading, the commodities, per se, are not rehandled in shipment until they are unloaded at the destination. A container that is transported on a rail flatcar.

An area designated to be used for the stowage of cargo in containers that may be accessed by truck, rail, or ocean transportation. A vessel specifically designed for the carriage of containers. The location designated by the carrier for receiving, assembling, holding, storing, and delivering containers, and where containers may be picked up by shippers or redelivered by consignees. A type of steamship-line service in which freight is transported from origin container yard to destination container yard.

Preparing to deal with calamities e. The streamlined pull of products in response to customer requirements while minimizing the total costs of distribution. Materials handling devices that include conveyors and drag lines. A structured, measurement-driven process that continually reviews and improves performance.

A never-ending effort to expose and eliminate root causes of problems; small-step improvement as opposed to big-step improvement.

Continuous replenishment is the practice of partnering between distribution channel members that changes the traditional replenishment process from distributor-generated purchase orders based on economic order quantities to the replenishment of products based on actual and forecasted product demand.

A program that triggers the manufacturing and movement of product through the supply chain when the identical product is purchased by an end user. An agreement between two or more competent persons or companies to perform or not to perform specific acts or services or to deliver merchandise. A contract may be oral or written. A purchase order, when accepted by a supplier, becomes a contract. Acceptance may be in writing or by performance, unless the purchase order requires acceptance in writing.

Managing all aspects of a contract to guarantee that the contractor fulfills his obligations. A for-hire carrier that does not serve the general public but serves shippers with whom the carrier has a continuing contract. The contract carrier must secure a permit to operate. A contract between a cargo shipper and carrier for the transport of multiple cargoes over a period of time.

Contracts are individually negotiated and usually include cargo description, quantities per shipment and in total, load and discharge ports, freight rates and duration of the contract. The difference between sales price and various costs. Contribution is used to cover fixed costs and profits. An amount equal to the difference between sales revenue and variable costs. Referring to an area within a warehouse or yard that is fenced and gated.

These areas are typically used to store high-value items and may be monitored by security cameras. The application used to describe the function of a vehicle of transfer. A materials handling device that moves freight from one warehouse area to another. Roller conveyors utilize gravity, whereas belt conveyors use motors. Groups of firms or individuals having common interests; agricultural cooperative associations may haul up to 25 percent of their total interstate non-farm, nonmember goods tonnage in movements incidental and necessary to their primary business.

Two or more carriers of different modes transporting a shipment. Bundles of skills or knowledge sets that enable a firm to provide the greatest level of value to its customers in a way that's difficult for competitors to emulate and that provides for future growth.

Core competencies are embodied in the skills of the workers and in the organization. They are developed through collective learning, communication, and commitment to work across levels and functions in the organization and with the customers and suppliers. A core competency could be the capability of a firm to coordinate and harmonize diverse production skills and multiple technologies. For rapid and effective development of such a process, materials scientists must work closely with machine designers, software engineers, process specialists, and operating personnel.

Core competencies are not directly related to the product or market. That unique capability that is central to a company's competitive strategy. The branch of accounting that is concerned with recording and reporting business operating costs.

It includes the reporting of costs by departments, activities, and products. The seller quotes a price that includes the cost of transportation to a specific point. The buyer assumes responsibility for loss and damage and pays for the insurance of the shipment. In accounting, the assignment of costs that cannot be directly related to production activities via more measurable means, e. In accounting, a sub-unit in an organization that is responsible for costs.

In accounting, any situation or event that causes a change in the consumption of a resource, or influences quality or cycle time. An activity may have multiple cost drivers.

Cost drivers do not necessarily need to be quantified; however, they strongly influence the selection and magnitude of resource drivers and activity drivers. In cost accounting, the examination, quantification, and explanation of the effects of cost drivers. The results are often used for continuous improvement programs to reduce throughput times, improve quality, and reduce cost. In cost accounting, the lowest level component of a resource activity, or cost object. A freight term indicating that the seller is responsible for cost, the marine insurance, and the freight charges on an ocean shipment of goods.

The management and control of activities and drivers to calculate accurate product and service costs, improve business processes, eliminate waste, influence cost drivers, and plan operations. The resulting information can be very useful in setting and evaluating an organization's strategies.

The cost to borrow or invest capital. The amount of direct materials, direct labor, and allocated overhead associated with products sold during a given period of time, determined in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAAP. Cost of Lost Sales: The forgone profit companies associate with a stockout.

The interrelationship among system variables in which a change in one variable affects other variables' costs. A cost reduction in one variable may increase costs for other variables, and vice versa. In cost accounting the difference between what has been budgeted for an activity and what it actually costs. Its purpose is to enhance the development of the logistics and supply chain management professions by providing these individuals with educational opportunities and relevant information through a variety of programs, services, and activities.

A reciprocal trading agreement that includes a variety of transactions involving two or more parties. An additional import duty imposed to offset Government subsidies in the exporting country, when the subsidized imports cause material injury to domestic industry in the importing country. The country that will be the ultimate or final destination for goods. The country where the goods were manufactured.

A fast, door-to-door service for high-valued goods and documents; firms usually limit service to shipments weighing fifty pounds or less. A materials handling device that lifts heavy items. The amount of purchasing credit a customer has available. Usually defined by the internal credit department and reduced by any existing unpaid bills or open orders.

The agreement between two or more enterprises concerning the amount and timing of payment for goods or services. This is what makes an idea, product, service, or business model unique. A modified ABC analysis in which a company assigns a subjective critical value to each item in an inventory.

Crossdock operations in a warehouse involve moving goods between different trucks to consolidate loads without intermediate storage. A distribution system in which merchandise received at the warehouse or distribution center is not put away, but instead is readied for shipment to retail stores.

Cross docking requires close synchronization of all inbound and outbound shipment movements. By eliminating the put-away, storage, and selection operations, it can significantly reduce distribution costs. The practice of attempting to sell additional products to a customer during a sales call. For example, when the CSR presents a camera case and accessories to a customer that is ordering a camera.

Material flow activity where materials are shipped to customers from a secondary shipping point rather than from a preferred shipping point.

Cubic volume of space being used or available for shipping or storage. The situation when a piece of equipment has reached its volumetric capacity before reaching the permitted weight limit. In warehousing, a measurement of the utilization of the total storage capacity of a vehicle or warehouse. The carrying capacity of a piece of equipment according to measurement in cubic feet. In warehousing, a measurement of space available, or required, in transportation and warehousing.

The total time required to source components, build, and ship a product. The cumulative internal and external lead time to manufacture shippable product, assuming that there is no inventory on hand, no materials or parts on order, and no prior forecasts existing with suppliers.

The critical path along the following elements: A surcharge imposed by a carrier on ocean freight charges to offset foreign currency fluctuations. Customer Acquisition or Retention: The rate at which new customers are acquired, or existing customers are retained. A key selling point to potential marquis partners. The end user, or customer, motivates what is produced or how it is delivered.

Those personnel whose jobs entail actual contact with the customer. An order from a customer for a particular product or a number of products. It is often referred to as an actual demand to distinguish it from a forecasted demand. The practice of placing a value on the profit generated by business done with a particular customer. This refers to information systems that help sales and marketing functions as opposed to the ERP Enterprise Resource Planning , which is for back-end integration.

Dividing customers into groups based on specific criteria, such as products purchased, customer geographic location, etc. The series of activities involved in providing the full range of services to customers. An individual who provides customer support via telephone in a call-center environment.

A long-term relationship between a buyer and a supplier characterized by teamwork and mutual confidence. The supplier is considered an extension of the buyer's organization. The partnership is based on several commitments. The buyer provides long-term contracts and uses fewer suppliers.

The supplier implements quality assurance processes so that incoming inspection can be minimized. The supplier also helps the buyer reduce costs and improve product and process designs. Creating a product from existing components into an individual order.

The authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. A Canada Customs system that allows for the electronic transmission of import data for goods that have already been released. Additional information such as accounting data and release notifications are also accessible. Normally responsible for obtaining and submitting all documents for clearing merchandise through customs, arranging inland transport, and paying all charges related to these functions.

The act of obtaining permission to import merchandise from another country into the importing nation. A business firm that oversees the movement of international shipments through Customs, and ensures that the documentation accompanying a shipment is complete and accurate. A document that contains a declaration by the seller, the shipper, or the agent as to the value of the shipment.

The value of the imported goods on which duties will be assessed. The abbreviation for hundredweight, which is the equivalent of pounds. An inventory system where counts are performed continuously, often eliminating the need for an annual overall inventory.

It is usually set up so that A items are counted regularly i. The amount of time it takes to complete a business process. The total time to process goods returned as obsolete and end of life to actual disposal. The total time to process goods returned for repair or refurbishing. Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety, or property, and that ordinarily require special attention when transported.

See also Hazardous Goods. In addition, scorecards should be reviewed regularly - at least on a monthly basis, and weekly in key functions such as manufacturing and distribution where activities are critical to the success of a company.

Lists the data elements for which standards exist. The process of studying data to search for previously unknown relationships. This knowledge is then applied to achieving specific business goals. A repository of data that has been specially prepared to support decision-making applications. Data stored in computer-readable form, usually indexed or sorted in a logical order by which users can find a particular item of data they need.

A label on products with the date of production. In food industries, it's often an integral part of the lot number. Measure of quantity of inventory on hand in relation to number of days for which usage will be covered.

For example, if a component is consumed in manufacturing at the rate of per day and there are 1, units available on hand, this represents The return of an empty transportation container to its point of origin. Dead on Arrival DOA: A term used to describe products which are not functional when delivered.

The cargo carrying capacity of a vesel, including fuel oil, stores and provisions. A situation in which a company management gives decision-making authority to managers at many organizational levels. Software that speeds access and simplifies data analysis, queries, etc. Declaration of Dangerous Goods: To comply with the U. Declared Value for Carriage: The value of the goods, declared by the shipper on a bill of lading, for the purpose of determining a freight rate or the limit of the carrier's liability.

An enterprise that provides services to un-group shipments, orders, goods, etc. A third party service that dedicates equipment vehicles and drivers to a single customer for its exclusive use on a contractual basis. Defective goods inventory DGI: Those items that have been returned, have been delivered damaged and have a freight claim outstanding, or have been damaged in some way during warehouse handling.

The time agreed upon between two enterprises for goods or transportation equipment to arrive at a selected location. This responsibility includes tasks such as ensuring that products get through Customs.

A document issued to a carrier to pick up goods at a location anddeliver them to another location. See also Delivery Order. A document issued by the customs broker to the ocean carrier as authority to release the cargo to the appropriate party. Delivery Performance to Commit Date: The percentage of orders that are fulfilled on o before the internal commit date, used as a measure of internal scheduling systems effectiveness.

Delivery measurements are based on the date a complete order is shipped or the ship-to date of a complete order. A complete order has all items on the order delivered in the quantities requested.

An order must be complete to be considered fulfilled. Multiple-line items on a single order with different planned delivery dates constitute multiple orders, and multiple-planned delivery dates on a single line item also constitute multiple orders.

Delivery Performance to Request Date: The percentage of orders that are fulfilled on or before the customer's requested date used as a measure of responsiveness to market demand. A complete order must be complete to be considered fulfilled. Multiple line items on a single order with different planned delivery dates constitute multiple orders, and multiple planned delivery dates on a single line item also constitute multiple orders.

A professional association of transportation and traffic practitioners. The same as supply chain management, but with an emphasis on consumer pull versus supplier push. The systems that assist in the process of identifying, aggregating, and prioritizing all sources of demand for the integrated supply chain of a product of service at the appropriate level, horizon, and interval.

The triggering of material movement to a work center only when that work center is ready to begin the next job. In effect, it eliminates the queue from in from of a work center, but it can cause a queue at the end of a previous work center.

A signal from a consumer, customer or using operation that triggers the issue of product or raw material. The process of identifying and measuring the gaps and imbalances between demand and resources in order to determine how to best resolve the variances through marketing, pricing, packaging, warehousing, outsource plans, or some other action that will optimize service, flexibility, costs, assets, or other supply chain inconsistencies in an iterative and collaborative environment.

The concept of a continuously rotating wheel of plan-to-do-check-action PDCA used to show the need for interaction among market research, design, production, and sales to improve quality. In marketing, dividing potential markets by characteristics of potential customers, such as age, sex, income, and education. The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained beyond a specified loading or unloading time.

A list of organizations that is unauthorized to submit a bid for an activity or to receive a specific product. For example, some countries have bans on certain products like weapons or sensitive technology. A physical characteristic measuring a commodity's mass per unit volume or pounds per cubic foot; an important factor in ratemaking, since density affects the utilization of a carrier's vehicle. A rate based upon the density and shipment weight. Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations controlling transportation.

The Motor Carrier Act of and the Staggers Act of revised the economic controls over motor carriers and railroads, and the Airline Deregulation Act of eliminated economic controls over air carriers. The demand for a product's transportation is derived from the product's demand at some location. A product design methodology that provides a quantitative evaluation of product designs.

Design of Experiments DOE: A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters.

The unloading of cargo from a container or other piece of equipment. A discount offered by a carrier that faces a service time disadvantage over a route. This is when your own sales force sells to the customer.

Your company may ship to the customer, or a third party may handle shipment, but in either case, your company owns the sales contract and retains rights to the receivable from the customer. Your end customer may be a retail outlet. The movement to the customer may be direct from the factory, or the product may move through a distribution network owned by your company. Order information in this channel may be transmitted by electronic means.

A cost that can be directly traced to a cost object since a direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationship exists. A direct cost uses a direct assignment or cost causal relationship to transfer costs.

Calculation of the net profit contribution attributable to a specific product or product line. A retail location that purchases products directly from your organization or responding entity. Process of shipping direct from a manufacturer's plant or distribution center to the customer's retail store, thus bypassing the customer's distribution center.

Also called Direct-to-Store Delivery. Same as Direct Store Delivery. Contingency planning specifically related to recovering hardware and software e. The name of the port where the cargo is unloaded from the export vessel. This is the port reported to the U. This can also be considered the first discharge port.

Discrete manufacturing processes create products by assembling unconnected distinct parts as in the production of distinct items such as automobiles, appliances, or computers.

When the traditional sales channels are disassembled and the middleman gets cut out of the deal. Such as where the manufacturer ships direct to a retailer, bypassing the distributor.

The carrier activities involved with controlling equipment; involves arranging for fuel, drivers, crews, equipment, and terminal space. Inventory that is geographically dispersed. For example, where a company maintains inventory in multiple distribution centers to provide a higher level of customer service.

Outbound logistics, from the end of the production line to the end user. The activities associated with the movement of material, usually finished goods or service parts, from the manufacturer to the customer. These activities encompass the functions of transportation, warehousing, inventory control, material handling, order administration, site and location analysis, industrial packaging, data processing, and the communications network necessary for effective management. It includes all activities related to physical distribution, as well as the return of goods to the manufacturer.

In many cases, this movement is made through one or more levels of fieldwarehouses. The systematic division of a whole into discrete parts having distinctive characteristics. The warehouse facility which holds inventory from manufacturing pending distribution to the appropriate stores. One or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer.

The organizational and pipeline strategy for getting products to customers. Many companies use both strategies, depending on markets and effectiveness. The planning activities associated with transportation, warehousing, inventory levels, materials handling, order administration, site and location planning, industrial packaging, data processing, and communications networks to support distribution.

A system of determining demands for inventory at distribution centers and consolidating demand information in reverse as input to the production and materials system. The extension of distribution requirements planning into the planning of the key resources contained in a distribution system: A finished goods warehouse from which a company assembles customer orders. A business that does not manufacture its own products, but purchases and resells these products.

Such a business usually maintains a finished goods inventory. A document used to accept materials or equipment at an ocean pier or accepted location. Provides the ocean carrier with verification of receipt and the delivering carrier with proof of delivery.

In EDI, a form, such as an invoice or purchase order, that trading partners have agreed to exchange and that the EDI software handles within its compliance-checking logic. See Design of Experiments. Domestic Trunk Line Carrier: A classification for air carriers that operate between major population centers. These carriers are now classified as major carriers. The through-transport of goods from consignor to consignee.

The through transport service from consignor to port of importation. A motor carrier operation that involves one tractor pulling two trailers. A mechanized device for transporting two standard pallets simultaneously. Double trucks are two foot trailers that are pulled by one tractor.

Doubles also are known as "double bottoms. To merge temporary files containing a day's or week's worth of information with the main data base in order to update it. One or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services moving from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer.

The service offered by a motor carrier for pick-up and delivery of ocean containers or rail containers. Drayage agents usually handle full-load containers for ocean and rail carriers. Motor carriers that provide local pickup and delivery of trailers and containers on chassis. Department of Transportation rules that limit the maximum time a driver may drive in interstate commerce; the rules prescribe both daily and weekly maximums.

A situation in which an equipment operator deposits a trailer or boxcar at a facility at which it is to be loaded or unloaded. To take the title of the products but not actually handle, stock, or deliver it, e. In the theory of constraints, the generalized process used to manage resources to maximize throughput. The drum is the rate or pace of production set by the system's constraint. The buffers establish the protection against uncertainty so that the system can maximize throughput.

The rope is a communication process from the constraint to the gating operation that checks or limits material released into the system to support the constraint. A motor carrier that has both common and contract carrier operating authority.

An international water carrier pricing system in which a shipper signing an exclusive use agreement with the conference pays a rate 10 to 15 percent lower than non-signing shippers do for an identical shipment. The packing material used to protect a product from damage during transport.

A coded, numerical representation assigned to a specific company USA. A tax imposed by a government on merchandise imported from another country.

A refund of duty paid on imported merchandise when it is exported later, whether in the same or a different form. An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties while awaiting manufacturing or future transport.

Continuous monitoring of process performance and adjustment of control parameters to optimize process output. A term referring to the Pareto principle. UCC System provides identification standards to uniquely identify trade items, logistics units, locations, assets, and service relations worldwide.

The identification standards define the construction of globally-unique and unambiguous numbers. For additional reference, please see http: The process of involving suppliers early in the product design activity and drawing on their expertise, insights, and knowledge to generate better designs in less time and ones that are easier to manufacture with high quality. A measure of a company's earning power from ongoing operations, equal to earnings revenues minus cost of sales, operating expenses, and taxes before deduction of interest payments and income taxes.

Also called operating profit. An inventory model that determines how much to order by determining the amount that will meet customer service levels while minimizing total ordering and holding costs. A measurement of shareholder value as a company's operating profits after tax, less an appropriate charge for the capital used in creating the profits.

A phenomenon whereby larger volumes of production reduce unit cost by distributing fixed costs over a larger quantity. Communication between partners in the form of a structured set of messages and service segments starting with an interchange control header and ending with an interchange control trailer. In the context of X. Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, commerce, and Transport. Criteria that define the data content and format requirements for specific business transactions e.

Using standard formats allows companies to exchange transactions with multiple trading partners more easily. American National Standards Institute. A functional group of one or more EDI transactions that are sent to the same location in the same transmission, and are identified by a functional group header and trailer.

A demand-driven replenishment system designed to link all parties in the logistics channel to create a massive flow-through distribution network. Replenishment is based on consumer demand and point-of-sale information. Also written as e-commerce. Conducting business electronically via traditional EDI technologies, or online via the Internet. In the traditional sense of selling goods, it's possible to do this electronically because of certain software programs that run the main functions of e-commerce support, such as product display, ordering, shipment, billing, and inventory management.

Intercompany, computer-to-computer transmission of business information in a standard format. For EDI purists, computer to computer means direct transmission from the originating application program to the receiving or processing application program. An EDI transmission consists only of business data, not any accompanying verbiage or free-form messages.

Purists might also contend that a standard format is one that is approved by a national or international standards organization, as opposed to formats developed by industry groups or companies.

Electronic Data Interchange Association: A national body that propagates and controls the use of EDI in a given country. A computerized system that processes financial transactions and information about these transactions or performs the exchange of value. Sending payment instructions across a computer network, or the company-to-company, company-to-bank, or bank-to bank electronic exchange of value.

The computer-to-computer exchange of messages. E-mail is usually unstructured free-form rather than in a structured format. A prohibition upon exports or imports, either with specific products or specific countries. Pertaining to a statement or formula based on experience or observation rather than on deduction or theory.

A product sold as a completed item or repair part; any item subject to a customer order or sales forecast. Inventory on hand that will satisfy future demand for products that are no longer in production at your company. The final buyer of the product who purchases the product for immediate use. A revision to a drawing or design released by engineering to modify or correct a part.

The request for the change can be from a customer or from production, quality control, another department, or a supplier. A documented and approved revision to a product or process specification. A process in which the manufacturing organization must first prepare engineer significant product or process documentation before manufacture may begin.

A term used for goods in transit or on the way to a destination. A computer term for the tools and techniques used in linking ERP and other enterprise systems together. Linking systems is key for e-business.

A class of software for planning and managing enterprise-wide the resources needed to take customer orders, ship them, account for them, and replenish all needed goods according to customer orders and forecasts. Often includes electronic commerce with suppliers. The document that must be filed with Customs to obtain the release of imported goods and to allow collection of duties and statistics.

Also called a Customs Entry Form or Entry. Enveloping is useful where there are multiple documents such as orders or invoices issued to a single trading partner that need to be sent as a packet. Designing features in a product and its packaging that improve recycling, etc. It can include elimination of compounds that are hazardous to the environment.

An electronically coded tag that is intended as an improvement to the UPC bar code system. Unlike a UPC number, which only provides information specific to a group of products, the GTIN gives each product its own specific identifying number, giving greater accuracy in tracking.

The rolling stock carriers use to facilitate the transportation services that they provide, including containers, trucks, chassis, vessels, and airplanes, among others.

An identifier assigned by the carrier to a piece of equipment. See also Container ID. The process of placing equipment at a selected location.

The science of creating workspaces and products which are human friendly to use. A set of guidelines for proper conduct by business professionals. A process for authorizing payment for goods based on actual receipts with purchase order data when price has already been negotiated.

The basic premise behind ERS is that all of the information in an invoice has already been transmitted in the shipping documentation. Therefore, the invoice is eliminated and the shipping documentation is used to pay the vendor. A deviation from the class rate; changes exceptions made to the classification.

A shipper agrees to use only a conference's member liner firms in return for a 10 to 15 percent rate reduction. Vehicles that a carrier assigns to a specific shipper for its exclusive use. A for-hire carrier that is free from economic regulation.

Trucks hauling certain commodities are exempt from Interstate Commerce Commission economic regulation. By far, the largest portion of exempt carriers transports agricultural commodities or seafood. A computer program that mimics a human expert. Complying with rules for exporting products, including packaging, labeling, and documentation. An enterprise that brings together buyer and seller for a fee, then eventually withdraws from the transaction.

A document required by the U. Treasury department and completed by the exporter to show the value, weight, consignee, destination, etc. The document serves two purposes: A document secured from a government authorizing an exporter to export a specific quantity of a controlled commodity to a certain country.

An export license is often required if a government has placed embargoes or other restrictions upon exports. Review native language verification applications submitted by your peers. Reviewing applications can be fun and only takes a few minutes.

Patents, Trademarks, Copyright Law: Grading comment Graded automatically based on peer agreement. Automatic update in Peer comments on this answer and responses from the answerer. Return to KudoZ list. View Ideas submitted by the community. Post Your ideas for ProZ. Vote Promote or demote ideas. View forum View forum without registering on UserVoice. You have native languages that can be verified You can request verification for native languages by completing a simple application that takes only a couple of minutes.

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