In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis or dissertation " defense ", which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions.
The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examiners in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received his or her degree , or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree.
At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically write a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense.
Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation.
Second, since the thesis supervisor and the other members of the advisory committee will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place.
It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks.
At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva.
Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M. Phil Master of Philosophy instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis. In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales , have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions. In the case of a master's degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners.
Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate's own department; the other s will usually be from other universities and often from overseas. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution. Similar to a master's degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master's degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate's department and one from another university.
For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor's degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate's own department.
Honours and Master's theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted. In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. This applies to almost all Diplom , Magister , master's and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor's degrees. However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees. There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice.
The Disputation , also called Verteidigung "defense" , is usually public at least to members of the university and is focused on the topic of the thesis. In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis. The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquium , which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung.
In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties. Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms. Like the British model, the PHD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners.
The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university usually from Commonwealth countries. The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement.
An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university. The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates.
In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester usually in the middle or by the end with a presentation of revisions so-called "plenary presentation" at the end of each semester. The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees.
Typical duration for the total exam is 1 hour 30 minutes for the MSc and 3 hours for the PhD. In North America, the thesis defense or oral defense is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master's candidates. The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student's university plus his or her primary supervisor, an external examiner someone not otherwise connected to the university , and a chair person.
Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter. In many schools, master's thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public. The typical format will see the candidate giving a short 20—minute presentation of his or her research, followed by one to two hours of questions.
A student in Ukraine or Russia has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute's professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis. A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute.
The Diploma de estudios avanzados DEA can last two years and candidates must complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied. After completing this part of the PhD, students begin a dissertation on a set topic. The dissertation must reach a minimum length depending on the subject and it is valued more highly if it contains field research.
Once candidates have finished their written dissertations, they must present them before a committee. Following this presentation, the examiners will ask questions. In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a viva voce Latin for "by live voice" examination viva for short.
A typical viva lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. Usually, one examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department but not one of the candidate's supervisors and the other is an external examiner from a different university. Increasingly, the examination may involve a third academic, the 'chair'; this person, from the candidate's institution, acts as an impartial observer with oversight of the examination process to ensure that the examination is fair.
The 'chair' does not ask academic questions of the candidate. In the United Kingdom, there are only two or at most three examiners, and in many universities the examination is held in private.
The candidate's primary supervisor is not permitted to ask or answer questions during the viva, and their presence is not necessary. However, some universities permit members of the faculty or the university to attend. At the University of Oxford, for instance, any member of the University may attend a DPhil viva the University's regulations require that details of the examination and its time and place be published formally in advance provided he or she attends in full academic dress.
A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense. By the final deadline , the student must submit a complete copy of the thesis to the appropriate body within the accepting institution, along with the appropriate forms, bearing the signatures of the primary supervisor, the examiners, and, in some cases, the head of the student's department. Other required forms may include library authorizations giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection and copyright permissions in the event that the student has incorporated copyrighted materials in the thesis.
Many large scientific publishing houses e. Failure to submit the thesis by the deadline may result in graduation and granting of the degree being delayed. Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries.
Specialist abstracting services exist to publicize the content of these beyond the institutions in which they are produced. Many institutions now insist on submission of digitized as well as printed copies of theses; the digitized versions of successful theses are often made available online. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 12 September For other uses, see Thesis disambiguation.
For the novel, see The Dissertation. This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: A Comprehensive Guide to Content and Process. A short article which describes the difference between a dissertation and an essay.
Guide to undergraduate dissertations in the social sciences. Content About this site. Introduction Why does my degree programme include a dissertation? Definitions How is your dissertation module organised?
What is it that is special about a dissertation Use your experience and strengths Summary Key questions Further reading Web resources. How to start your dissertation Help with finding literature and research Formulating the research question Methodologies Responsibility in the research process Research Ethics Supervision of the Dissertation Writing the Dissertation Developing Your Academic Style of Writing Plagiarism. Resources Further reading Research papers.
What is a Dissertation? So this part of site provides you with a better understanding of the following: What a dissertation is Why you are required to do a dissertation What your dissertation may look like How to set about your initial reading and writing Watch What is a dissertation?
This is because the process of producing this type of assessment enables you to: Identify your own area of interest. Explore an area in depth. Define your own question. Experience the process of producing knowledge. Manage a project from beginning to end. Consolidate your communication, information-seeking and intellectual skills.
Definitions For many undergraduate degree students, a significant element of final year study is an independent learning project. First, the learner determines the focus and direction of their work.
Second, this work is carried out on an individual basis — although usually with some tutor support and direction provided. Finally, learners will have a more prolonged engagement with the chosen subject than is the case with 'standard' coursework assignments such as essays or reports, with the work consequently expected to be more 'in-depth'.
How is your dissertation module organised? The following checklist will start you on the dissertation journey, start planning and also clarify what is expected of you Checklist Question Answer How many credit points or module equivalents is the dissertation worth? What is the submission date for the final piece? Are there any lectures, seminars or workshops associated with the module?
Will you have a dissertation supervisor? How are supervisors allocated? How often are you allowed to meet with your supervisor? You become actively involved with research which could mean empirical research or a library-based project. It is an opportunity for originality and intellectual independence. Your first course essays were usually though not always written to titles prescribed by your tutor. As you progressed through your course, you may have been given the opportunity to make up your own titles.
In this way, your independence, as a reader and critic, developed. The dissertation builds on this foundation; it grows out of your own particular interest, both in terms of the material you choose to write about and the topic that provides the focus of your study. So when you read books and papers on your chosen topic, you become aware that you are reading with a different sense of purpose - to understand and re-present the arguments - yes, but you then start to make sense of what particularly interested you in the books, journal articles or media sources and what particular critical questions you wanted to ask about them.
These brief guides offer an insight into what you need to include in your research proposal for various areas of study. Are you struggling with a Dissertation? You could have a complete, original Dissertation emailed to you from an academic qualified and experienced in your area of study, with complete confidentiality. Find out more about our dissertation writing services or visit our simple order form and get the help you need now.
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Dissertation guide Home Guides How to write a dissertation. Your guide to writing a Dissertation. Parts of a dissertation Our guide to each individual part of your dissertation will help you understand exactly what is required at each stage, and will provide you with plenty of useful tips and advice for maximising your marks.
Dissertation topic Dissertation proposal Dissertation materials Dissertation title Dissertation abstract Dissertation table of contents Dissertation introduction Dissertation background Dissertation methodology Dissertation literature review Dissertation evidence Dissertation conclusion Dissertation recommendations Dissertation referencing Dissertation appendix. The ultimate dissertation writing guide For a more comprehensive start-to-finish walk through of the dissertation writing process, check out our ultimate dissertation writing guide.
Introduction to dissertation writing Chapter 1: Where to start Chapter 2:
A masters degree thesis is typically over pages. However, the dissertation is usually at least double and sometimes triple the length of a thesis. To determine the length of your thesis or dissertation, remember you should always first consult your grad school.
Traditionally, an undergraduate degree in the social sciences and humanities uses a dissertation for a final piece of study. The degree might also offer other alternatives such as the option of an extended essay, or an independent learning project, or a senior paper.
Define dissertation. dissertation synonyms, dissertation pronunciation, dissertation translation, English dictionary definition of dissertation. n. A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis. n 1. a written thesis, often based. Professional Dissertation; Writing Links; Forms; Professional Dissertation. The purpose of the professional dissertation is to develop a student's core competencies. The American Psychological Association has outlined nine core competency areas which are required for students who graduate from programs accredited in health service psychology.
The thesis is a project that marks the end of a master’s program, while the dissertation occurs during doctoral study. The two are actually quite different in their purpose, as well. A thesis is a compilation of research that proves you are knowledgeable about the information learn throughout your graduate program.