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A Guide to Referencing Academic Work

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A Guide to Referencing Academic Work
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As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.

Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.

When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:.

Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.

Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.

The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers.

When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.

The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al. Humanities graduates in the labour market. The Falmer Press, pp.

Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system.

It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.

The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts.

The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide. The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources. Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet.

When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. A suggested format is to include the author of the information this may be an individual, group or organisation , the date the page was put on the internet most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page , the title, the http: A format for referencing web pages is given below.

Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:. Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.

If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks.

The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency. The label and the title should appear on separate lines above the table, flush left.

Below the table, provide the source. A sample Figure treatment is shown below. A sample figure and caption in APA style. Create your list of references on its own page after the last page of your text. Center the title References one inch from the top of the page.

Alphabetize the list of references by the last name of the authors. If the work has no author or editor, alphabetize the work by the first word of the title excluding A, An, or The.

The Basics What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay. APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research. When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E.

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin. The parenthetical citation should come after closing punctuation mark.

Jones's study found the following:. Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number although it is not required.

According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system.

There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Research by Wegener and Petty showed A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.

Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.

Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.

Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.

Berndt, ; Harlow, Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list.

Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.

Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above.

If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.

Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.

If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading. Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. According to Smith , Mind over Matter section, para. Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.

In the text, place a superscript numeral immediately after the text about which you would like to include more information, e. Scientists examined the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak. At the end of the paper, create a separate page labeled Notes with the title centered at the top of the page. Below are examples of two kinds of notes. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.

Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.

Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References with no quotation marks, underlining, etc. It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work book, article, electronic resource, etc.

Last name first, followed by author initials. Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , List by their last names and initials.

Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , If there are more than six authors, list the first six as above and then "et al. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44 3 , Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name.

Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate. For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: Merriam-Webster's , and "New Drug," Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year earliest comes first. When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.

Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66 , Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions.

Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 , If you are using more than one reference by the same author or the same group of authors listed in the same order published in the same year, organise them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter. Then assign letter suffixes to the year. Refer to these sources in your essay as they appear in your reference list, e.

Age changes and changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Developmental Psychology, 17 , Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52 , APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.

The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalised. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized or underlined. Title of Periodical, volume number issue number , pages. Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.

Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 , Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15 30 , Making the grade in today's schools.

Time, , Unlike other periodicals, p. Single pages take p. B2; multiple pages take pp. B2, B4 or pp. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 2 , Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ].

Contemporary Psychology, 38 , Capital letter also for subtitle. For "Location," you should always list the city, but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state. APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Consequences of growing up poor. A philosophical essay on probabilities. Original work published When you cite a republished work, like the one above, work in your text, it should appear with both dates: The battered child 5th ed.


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Essays menu; Essay writing guide. Home. Guides. Referencing guide. Referencing guide. A free guide from Essay UK. Referencing HARVARD referencing guide. When writing a piece of work you will need to refer in your text to material written produced by others. This procedure is called citing or quoting references. e.g. MERCER, P.A. . OSCOLA Referencing Guide OSCOLA referencing, sometimes referred to as Oxford referencing, is a style of referencing primarily used in UK academic content related to the law. Legal sources such as cases and statues may be cited, along with secondary sources, for example, books and journals. If you are looking for our OSCOLA Reference .

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Free guide to APA referencing from Essay UK, the UK essays company that provides essay writing services for students. APA Referencing Guide APA (American Psychological Association) referencing is a style which shares several similarities with Harvard referencing; it is predominantly used in the social sciences. If you are looking for our APA Reference Generator then click on the button below: APA Reference Generator APA Referencing Overview While the .