All participants were either current or past part-time less than 40 hours per week or full time 40 hours per week or more employees of some organization. The researchers used three mental measures in this study: The researchers had four hypotheses in this study taken from page High humor oriented individuals will report using more humorous behaviors in the workplace than low humor oriented individuals.
Hugh humor oriented individuals will perceive more types of humorous behaviors as appropriate for their manager to use in the workplace than low humor oriented individuals. First, employees who rated themselves as using large amounts of humor in their daily interactions with others used more humorous behaviors in the workplace than those individuals who did not rate themselves as humorous. Second, employees who rated themselves as using large amounts of humor in their daily interactions with others believed that managers could use a wider array of humor strategies in the workplace than those individuals who did not rate themselves as humorous.
Research generally divides methods into two different epistemologies, or ways of knowing: Reclaiming qualitative methods for organizational research: Administrative Science Quarterly, 24 , —, pg. A content analysis of three mass communication research traditions: Social science, interpretive studies, and critical analysis. Interpretive research is not an easy idea to nail down, so any discussion of what interpretive research is must start by clearly distinguishing this approach from the social scientific one.
According to Amedeo P. Giorgi, the social-scientific often referred to as positivistic research by qualitative researchers method can be broken into six general parts:. Fundamentally, Giorgi believed that social-scientific researchers are asking fundamentally wrong questions.
Phenomenology and experimental psychology, In A. Duquesne University Press, pg. A hands-on approach pp. The first major goal of interpretive research is the desire to see how people communicate in their natural environments. By natural environment, interpretive researchers do not want to view people engaging in communication within a laboratory setting.
Instead, interpretivists want to observe people going about their daily communicative routines with their coworkers in a fashion that resembles as normal a communication experience as humanly possible.
Interpretivism in organizational research: On elephants and blind researchers. Second, interpretivists want to observe participants as they go about their daily lives doing what they normally would do and not alter their behavior for the researcher s. Social-scientists set specific hypotheses, determine how to test those hypotheses, and test the hypotheses.
Interpretivists, on the other hand, go into a research encounter to observe and learn and ultimately see what their participants show them. Instead of going in with a pre-set agenda, interpretivists watch how people behave when the participants are guided by their own personal objectives and not those of the researcher. Lastly, interpretivists are interested in how people understand their own communicative behavior and give meaning to their own communicative behavior.
Humans generally behave and communicate for a variety of reasons, and thus understand and prescribe a variety of meanings to their communication. An interpretivist is less concerned with attaching some kind of meaning to a researcher participant than they are with understanding how that research participant views her or his own communicative behavior. In the organizational environment, maybe a researcher is interested in understanding how people view the balance between their work lives and their personal lives.
Hoffman did just this in their study examining how people view their work and personal lives in the accompanying sidebar. Qualitative communication research methods 2nd ed. By Renee Cowan and Mary F. Hoffman Cowan, R. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 8 , 37— In this study, the researchers set out to qualitatively examine how individuals manage their work lives and their personal lives with each other.
Specifically, the researcher had one overarching research question in this study:. The researchers recruited 30 participants. All of the participants had to be at least 18 years of age and currently employed in an organization that provided benefits e. Ultimately, the 30 interviews generated single-spaced pages of transcribed text for analysis.
Furthermore, these issues can be broken into four distinct themes: Employees wanted to have flexibility in how their time was calculated by the organizations.
This included flex time issues instead of coming in at 8 and leaving at 4, you could come in at 10 and leave at 6 , and the possibility of examining time over a larger period not always counting up 40 hours within one work week, but averaged over the entire year.
Employees saw space issues as a two prong construct: Physical space flexibility is the notion that individuals should have the ability to telecommute and work from home when capable. Mental space is the notion that individuals should be allowed to think about work at home and think about home at work.
Employees believed that their quality work should receive extra financial compensation bonuses, increase in pay, etc. Traditional social-scientific research wants to make hypotheses and test them interpretive research wants to study how people communicate in a natural environment and understand that communication.
Within most groups there are those with power and those without power. Critical researchers strongly believe that those with power purposefully prevent those without from achieving equality. According to Mats Alvesson and Karen L. Ashcroft, critical theory entails four specific parts:. The first part of critical theory identified by Alvesson and Ashcroft is the idea that critical theory helps people question ideologies, institutions, interests, and identities that appear dominant and are in some way problematic.
First, we have ideologies The beliefs, myths, and doctrines that guide an individual, group, or organization. From the critical theorists perspective, they want to examine whether or not these ideologies that have been developed within an organization are fundamentally harmful especially to workers.
Furthermore, critical theorists question if specific ideologies have are unchallenged. By unchallenged, we mask whether or not a specific ideology is allowed to be pervasive and no questions the ideology or where it came from and how it stays. Often organizational leaders create ideologies that are inherently problematic for workers. Critical theorists attempt to look at a variety of ideologies that exist and get communicated within an organization in an attempt to shed the light on how ideologies function to keep workers subjugated by management.
Second, critical theorists examine various institutions that are dominant in society and examine them to see if they are harmful for the general worker. Third, critical theorists examine various interests to see if they are harmful to workers and remain unchallenged. By interests Whether or not an individual or group of individuals has a clear advantage or advancement of a personal or group agenda that is not necessarily clearly articulated to everyone within an organization.
One of the more interesting and seedy aspects of modern organizational life is the issue of unarticulated or hidden interests that people especially those in leadership positions may have. Critical theorists attempt to seek out these interests and bring them to the light of day in an effort to show workers how they are being manipulated to help people in power achieve these interests.
Furthermore, often the interests of those with power are not the same as those without the power. Emily rated it it was amazing Feb 04, Dawn Boyer rated it it was ok Jun 29, Kelli rated it really liked it Jun 05, Annamarie marked it as to-read May 08, Amanda Roberts added it Dec 26, Dani added it Dec 30, Kat added it Feb 21, Ciara Colvin marked it as to-read Jun 28, Jenny Liu Aizhou marked it as to-read Sep 09, Henry added it Jan 11, Conroy Stout marked it as to-read Jun 10, Lesa added it Jun 27, Rachel Bonney added it Jul 25, Tiare added it Sep 18, Teelock added it Feb 22, Sarah Harris added it Mar 29, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
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Purchase Send feedback Also available as: Ebook This title is available as an ebook from RedShelf. New to this Edition A new chapter on big data and how researchers use it Coverage of conflicts of interest in Chapter 3: Research Ethics A thorough discussion of the major epistemological traditions within the field of communication A new section on presenting research to external audiences highlighting the differences between research for academic audiences and research for the general public Presentation of valuable information in a side-bar feature without disrupting the narrative A new section on ordinary vs.
Features About the Author s Previous Publication Date s Reviews Features An introduction to the fundamentals of communication research, from library skills to basic mathematical concepts An examination of the three most common techniques used in communication research: About the Author s Jason S.
"If you're teaching a quantitative methods course, this is the best of all alternatives. Very thorough approach." --Douglas A. Ferguson, College of Charleston "Engaging examples help students apply information to real world scenarios".4/5(1).
The term quantitative refers to research in which we can quantify, or count, communication edupdf.gatative methodologies draw heavily from research methods in the physical sciences explore human communication phenomena through the collection and analysis of numerical data.
Quantitative Research in Communication is ideal for courses in Quantitative Methods in Communication, Statistical Methods in Communication, Advanced Research Methods (undergraduate), and Introduction to Research Methods (Graduate) in departments of communication. Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach, Third Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging guide to quantitative research. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experience, the authors encourage students to take an active, hands-on role in the learning process.
Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach 2nd edition by Wrench, Jason S., Thomas-Maddox, Candice, Peck Richmond, Vir () Paperback on edupdf.ga *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers/5(7). Quantitative Research Methods for Communication: A Hands-On Approach, Third Edition, is a comprehensive and engaging guide to quantitative research. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experience, the authors encourage students to take an active, hands-on role in the learning edupdf.ga: $